A

  • Ajowan, carom seeds (Trachyspermum ammi) (South Asia, Afghanistan, Iran, Egypt, Eritrea & Ethiopia)
  • Akudjura (Solanum centrale) (Australia)
  • Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum)
  • Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa)
  • Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria), for red color
  • Alligator pepper, mbongo spice (mbongochobi), hepper pepper (Aframomum danielli, A. citratum, A. exscapum) (West Africa)
  • Allspice (Pimenta dioica)
  • Amchur (Mangifera indica)
  • Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
  • Anise (Pimpinella anisum)
  • Aniseed myrtle (Syzygium anisatum) (Australia)
  • Annatto (Bixa orellana)
  • Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens)
  • Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)
  • Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida)
  • Asarabacca (Asarum europaeum)
  • Avens (Geum urbanum)
  • Avocado leaf (Peresea americana)

B

  • Barberry (Berberis vulgaris and other Berberis spp.)
  • Basil, sweet (Ocimum basilicum)
  • Basil, lemon (Ocimum × citriodorum)
  • Basil, Thai (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora)
  • Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis)
  • Boldo (Peumus boldus)
  • Borage (Borago officinalis)
  • Black cardamom (Amomum subulatum, Amomum costatum)
  • Black mustard (Brassica nigra)
  • Blue fenugreek, blue melilot (Trigonella caerulea)
  • Brown mustard (Brassica juncea)

C

  • Calabash nutmeg, ehuru (Monodora myristica) (West Africa)
  • Calendula, pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)
  • Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora)
  • Caraway (Carum carvi)
  • Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)
  • Carob (Ceratonia siliqua)
  • Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
  • Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum)
  • Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum)
  • Celery seed (Apium graveolens)
  • Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)
  • Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
  • Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)
  • Chili powder (a spice blend)
  • Chipotle (Capsicum annuum)
  • Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
  • Cicely, sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  • Cilantro, coriander greens, coriander herb (Coriandrum sativum)
  • Cinnamon, Indonesian (Cinnamomum burmannii, Cassia vera)
  • Cinnamon, Saigon or Vietnamese (Cinnamomum loureiroi)
  • Cinnamon, true or Ceylon (Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum)
  • Cinnamon, white (Canella winterana)
  • Cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia) (Australia)
  • Clary, Clary sage (Salvia sclarea)
  • Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • Coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum)
  • Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita)
  • Cream of Tartar
  • Cuban oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus)
  • Cubeb pepper (Piper cubeba)
  • Cudweed (Gnaphalium spp.) (Vietnam)
  • Culantro, culangot, long coriander (Eryngium foetidum)
  • Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)
  • Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii)
  • Curry plant (Helichrysum italicum)
  • Curry powder

D

E

  • Elderflower (Sambucus spp.)
  • Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides)

F

  • Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
  • Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
  • Filé powder, gumbo filé (Sassafras albidum)
  • Fingerroot, krachai, temu kuntji (Boesenbergia rotunda)

G

  • Galangal, greater (Alpinia galanga)
  • Galangal, lesser (Alpinia officinarum)
  • Galingale (Cyperus spp.)
  • Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum)
  • Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • Garlic, elephant (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum)
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
  • Ginger, torch, bunga siantan (Etlingera elatior) (Indonesia)
  • Golpar, Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) (Iran)
  • Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta)
  • Grains of Selim, Kani pepper (Xylopia aethiopica)

H

  • Hops (Humulus lupulus)
  • Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
  • Houttuynia (Houttuynia cordata) (Vietnam)
  • Huacatay, Mexican marigold, mint marigold (Tagetes minuta)
  • Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

I

  • Indonesian bay leaf, daun salam (Syzygium polyanthum)

J

  • Jasmine flowers (Jasminum spp.)
  • Jimbu (Allium hypsistum) (Nepal)
  • Juniper berry (Juniperus communis)

K

  • Kaffir lime leaves, Makrud lime leaves (Citrus hystrix) (Southeast Asia)
  • Kala Jeera, black cumin (Bunium persicum) (South Asia)
  • Kencur, galangal, kentjur (Kaempferia galanga)
  • Keluak, kluwak, kepayang (Pangium edule)
  • Kokam seed (Garcinia indica) (Indian confectionery)
  • Korarima, Ethiopian cardamom, false cardamom (Aframomum corrorima) (Eritrea)
  • Koseret (Lippia adoensis) (Ethiopia)

L

  • Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
  • Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)
  • Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, C. flexuosus, and other Cymbopogon spp.)
  • Lemon ironbark (Eucalyptus staigeriana) (Australia)
  • Lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) (Australia)
  • Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora)
  • Lesser calamint (Calamintha nepeta), nipitella, nepitella (Italy)
  • Licorice, liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
  • Lime flower, linden flower (Tilia spp.)
  • Lovage (Levisticum officinale)

M

  • Mace (Myristica fragrans)
  • Mahlab, St. Lucie cherry (Prunus mahaleb)
  • Malabathrum, tejpat (Cinnamomum tamala)
  • Marjoram (Origanum majorana)
  • Marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis)
  • Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus)
  • Mint (Mentha spp.) 25 species, hundreds of varieties
  • Musk mallow, abelmosk (Abelmoschus moschatus)
  • Mustard, black, mustard plant, mustard seed (Brassica nigra)
  • Mustard, brown, mustard plant, mustard seed (Brassica juncea)
  • Mustard, white, mustard plant, mustard seed (Sinapis alba)

N

  • Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
  • Nigella, kalonji, black caraway, black onion seed (Nigella sativa)
  • Njangsa, djansang (Ricinodendron heudelotii) (West Africa)
  • Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)

O

  • Olida (Eucalyptus olida) (Australia)
  • Onion (Allium cepa) (Asia)
  • Oregano (Origanum vulgare, O. heracleoticum, and other species)
  • Orris root (Iris germanica, I. florentina, I. pallida)

P

  • Pandan flower, kewra (Pandanus odoratissimus)
  • Pandan leaf, screwpine (Pandanus amaryllifolius)
  • Paprika (Capsicum annuum)
  • Paracress (Spilanthes acmella, Soleracea) (Brazil)
  • Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
  • Pepper: black, white, and green (Piper nigrum)
  • Pepper, Dorrigo (Tasmannia stipitata) (Australia)
  • Pepper, long (Piper longum)
  • Pepper, mountain, Cornish pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata)
  • Peppermint (Mentha piperata)
  • Peppermint gum leaf (Eucalyptus dives)
  • Perilla, shiso (Perilla spp.)
  • Pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius)

Q

  • Quassia (Quassia amara) (bitter spice in aperitifs, and some beers and fortified wines)

R

  • Ramsons, wood garlic (Allium ursinum)
  • Rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica) (Vietnam)
  • Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
  • Rue (Ruta graveolens)

S

  • Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), for yellow color
  • Saffron (Crocus sativus)(
  • Sage (Salvia officinalis)
  • Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi)
  • Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor)
  • Salep (Orchis mascula)
  • Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
  • Savory, summer (Satureja hortensis)
  • Savory, winter (Satureja montana)
  • Silphium, silphion, laser, laserpicium, lasarpicium (Ancient Roman cuisine, Ancient Greek cuisine)
  • Sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
  • Sorrel, French (Rumex scutatus)
  • Sorrel, sheep (Rumex acetosella)
  • Spearmint (Mentha spicata)
  • Spikenard (Nardostachys grandiflora or N. jatamansi)
  • Star anise (Illicium verum)
  • Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)
  • Sumac (Rhus coriaria)
  • Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum)
  • Szechuan pepper, Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum)

T

  • Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)
  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
  • Thyme, lemon (Thymus × citriodorus)
  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

V

  • Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)
  • Vietnamese balm (Elsholtzia ciliata)
  • Vietnamese cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi)
  • Vietnamese coriander (Persicaria odorata)

W

  • Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)
  • Water-pepper, smartweed (Polygonum hydropiper)
  • Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquatica)
  • Wattleseed (from about 120 spp. of Australian Acacia)
  • White mustard (Sinapis alba)
  • Wild betel (Piper sarmentosum) (Southeast Asia)
  • Wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum)
  • Willow herb (Epilobium parviflorum)
  • Winter savory (Satureja montana)
  • Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)
  • Wood avens, herb bennet (Geum urbanum)
  • Woodruff (Galium odoratum)
  • Wormwood, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium)

Y

  • Yellow mustard (Brassica hirta = Sinapis alba)
  • Yerba buena, any of four different species, many unrelated

Z

  • Za’atar (herbs from the genera Origanum, Calamintha, Thymus, and Satureja)
  • Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria)
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